Drift stately canals of Mars.
Escort caravans through the desert domains of the
steppe nomads. Fight the winged warriors and cloud ships of the Martian Sky
Undertake a secret mission for the crown on Venus.
Elude the agents of the Kaiser; avoid capture by the
German war zeppelins; survive the steaming, Venusian swamps, with their savage
amphibious natives and gigantic dinosaurs.
Explore the mysterious caverns and grottos of Luna. Venture deep into the dark interior on search of the Selenites.
SPACE 1889 Reprinted
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Rene Descartes proposed the idea of one all-pervasive ether, believed by 19th-century physicists to be universal and to be the necessary medium for the propagation of electromagnetic radiation.
|1667||Robert Hooke writes that color may be explained as differences in the rate of vibration of light in the ether.|
|1675||Observations of the eclipses of Jupiter's moons show that light transmission is not instantaneous.|
|1700s||Newton's particle interpretation of light is disproven. The theory that light is a wave moving through the ether gains ground.|
|1762||Land tenure reform leads to the Highland Clearances and massive emigration for several decades. The Highland Clearances (Scottish Gaelic: Fuadach nan Gàidheal, the expulsion of the Gael) were forced displacements of the population of the Scottish Highlands during the 18th and 19th centuries. They led to mass emigration to the sea coast, the Scottish Lowlands, and the North American colonies. The clearances were part of a process of agricultural change throughout the United Kingdom (called enclosure elsewhere), but were particularly notorious as a result of the late timing, the lack of legal protection for year-by-year tenants under Scots law, the abruptness of the change from the traditional clan system, and the brutality of many evictions.|
June 4, Joseph-Michel and Jacques-Étienne Montgolfier launched an unmanned hot-air balloon, the first public demonstration of the discovery that hot air in a large lightweight bag rises.
|1788||May 28, The Federalist papers—a series of 85 essays on the proposed new U.S. Constitution and on the nature of republican government, written in 1787–88 by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay—were published in book form.|
|1796||Struck by a milkmaid's observation that she would never develop smallpox as she had once had cowpox, Jenner inoculates a healthy 8-year-old boy with material from a cowpox sore on the hand of the milkmaid. When exposed to smallpox, the boy fails to develop the disease. Jenner begins a series of experiments in transferring cowpox (vaccinia virus) arm to arm. Each vaccinated individual is later proven resistant to smallpox.|
The first self-propelling steam engine or steam
locomotive made its outing on 13 February 1804 at the Pen-y-Darren ironworks.
The machine was designed by Richard Trevithick. The engine was able to pull a
load of 15 tons at a speed of about 5 mph. However, adhesion was a problem
(iron wheels on iron rails = slipping). This was partially solved by Blenkinsop
who in 1811 designed an engine for the Middleton Colliery, using cogged wheels
engaging in racks on the railway.
May, explorers Meriwether Lewis and William Clark begin the first U.S. overland expedition to the Pacific coast.
May 28, Napoleon proclaimed the establishment of the French Empire.
|1806||March 23, Lewis and Clark's return trip begun. Having completed the first U.S. overland expedition to the Pacific coast, explorers Meriwether Lewis and William Clark this day in 1806 began their return to St. Louis, Missouri, where their journey had begun in May 1804.|
|1807||The Abolition of the Slave Trade Act was passed by the
British Parliament on March 25, 1807. The act imposed a fine of £100 for
every slave found aboard a British ship. The intention was to entirely outlaw
the slave trade within the British Empire, but the trade continued and captains
in danger of being caught by the Royal Navy would often throw slaves into the
sea to reduce the fine. After the 1807 act, slaves were still held, though not
sold, within the British Empire. In the 1820s, the abolitionist movement again
became active, this time campaigning against the institution of slavery itself.
March 29, German astronomer Wilhelm Olbers discovered the minor planet Vesta, the brightest asteroid in the sky.
|1810||May 25, having severed ties with Spain and the viceregal government, the municipal council of Buenos Aires, Argentina, established an autonomous government.|
The Commissioners' Plan of 1811 was a proposal by the New York State Legislature adopted in 1811 for the orderly development and sale of the land of Manhattan between 14th Street and Washington Heights.
June 18, TheWar of 1812 beguns. U.S. President James Madison signed a declaration of war against Great Britain, initiating the War of 1812, which arose chiefly from U.S. grievances over oppressive maritime practices during the Napoleonic Wars.
June 24, French Emperor Napoleon—who had massed his troops in Poland in the spring to intimidate Russian Tsar Alexander I—and 600,000 troops of his Grand Army launched an ill-fated invasion of Russia.
March 27, at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend (Tohopeka, Alabama) in the Creek War, Andrew Jackson and his 3,000 troops defeated the Creek Indians, slaughtering more than 800 warriors and imprisoning 500 women and children.
April 11, on this day, during the French revolutionary and Napoleonic wars, Napoleon was facing an invasion of France by forces bent on his overthrow and, pressed by his own officers, abdicated unconditionally at Fontainebleau.
Louis XVIII Crowned King of France Louis XVIII was crowned king of France on the abdication of Napoleon I in 1814 and returned to France in 1814 after years of exile in Europe. When Napoleon seized power in 1815, Louis returned to exile in Belgium. He was restored to the throne following Napoleons exile to Elba, and reigned until 1824.
May 30, the first of the Treaties of Paris was signed, ending the Napoleonic Wars.
March 20, The Hundred Days—during which Napoleon, having ended his exile by escaping the island of Elba, would try to recapture his empire in France—began with Napoleon's arrival in Paris.
April 11, The eruption of Mount Tambora, a volcano on the island of Sumbawa, Indonesia, killed about 10,000 people.
June 18, Napoleon was defeated in the Battle of Waterloo, ending 23 years of recurrent warfare between France and the other powers of Europe.
November 20, 1815 The Treaty of Paris was signed
following the defeat of Napoleon at Waterloo and his exile to Elba. Its terms
were more severe than those of the 1814 agreement: France was forced to accept
the boundaries of 1790, pay a war indemnity, and finance an allied occupation
|1817||Cholera broke out in Calcutta in 1817 with grand -
scale results. India's traditional, great Kumbh festival at Hardwar in the
Upper Ganges triggered the outbreak. The festival lasts three months, drawing
pilgrims from all over the country. Those from the Lower Bengal brought the
disease with them as they shared the polluted water of the Ganges and the open,
crowded camps on its banks. Cholera was a rare disease, as far as we know,
confined to the Ganges delta in India before the 1800s, when it became the
world's first truly global disease in a series of epidemics.
When the festival was over, they carried cholera back to their homes in other parts of India. There is no reliable evidence of how many Indians perished during that epidemic, but the British army counted 10,000 fatalities among its imperial troops. Based on those numbers, it's almost certain that at least hundreds of thousands of natives must have fallen victim across that vast land.
When the festival ended, cholera raged along the trade routes to Iran, Baku and Astrakhan and up the Volga into Russia, where merchants gathered for the great autumn fair in Nijni-Novgorod. When the merchants went back to their homes in inner Russia and eastern Europe, the disease went along with them. Cholera sailed from port to port, the bacteria making headway in contaminated kegs of water or in the excrement of infected victims, and transmitted by travelers. The exceptioinally cold winter of 1823-24 is credited for preventing the spread of the disease to western Europe. For the moment, the western world had been spared, but by 1827 cholera had become the most feared disease of the century.
|1819||29th January, British East India Company administrator Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles founded
modern Singapore and first mooted the idea which led to the establishment of
the Raffles Museum on the island.
Thomas Stamford Raffles was born at sea on board a ship Ann on the 6th of July, 1781 off the coast of Jamaica. In 1795, the young man accepted his first job in the East India Company as a clerk. But he studied hard in his spare time and in 1804, was posted to Penang (then Prince of Wales Island) and promoted to Assistant Secretary to the Presidency of that Malaysian island. His mastery over the Malay language made him indispensable to the British Government, and he was later appointed Malay translator to the Government of India. In 1811, he returned as the Lieutenant Governor of Java, and was soon promoted to Governor of Bencoolen (now Sumatra). Stamford Raffles was deeply fascinated by the immense diversity of strange animals and plants of the East Indies during his tenure there. He soon employed zoologists and botanists to discover all they can about the animals and plants of the region and would pay his assistants out of his own pockets to collect specimens. He also revived and became the president of the Batavian Society which was actively engaged in the study of natural history of Java and adjacent areas.
May 24 The future Queen Victoria born. Victoria was the daughter of Edward, the Duke of Kent and Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg. She was born in Kensington Palace in London on May 24th, 1819.
Oersted Discovers Magnetic Effect of Electric Current. Hans Christian Oersted, a Danish physicist and chemist, is best known for his fundamental research in electromagnetism. In 1819 he observed the deflection of a magnetic needle at right angles to a wire carrying an electric current revealing the connection between magnetism and electricity. This discovery laid the foundations for the study of electromagnetism. In 1844 he summarized the results of his research work in the book, Manual of Mechanical Physics.
Albert, who was educated privately and read law for a year at the University of Bonn before visiting Italy, remained intensely interested in German politics, particularly the politics of constitutionalism and of unification. After his marriage, which from the start was a marriage of love, however, his main commitments and obligations were in Britain. His role was an important, sometimes controversial one. One of his critics complained in 1854 that it was too much that one man, and he not an Englishman by birth, should be at once Foreign Secretary, Commander-in-Chief, and Prime Minister under all administrations. Of course, Albert held none of these titles, and the complaint was grossly exaggerated. He was a hard worker and was to die young in December 1861, from typhoid. The Queen, in an agony of grief, was inconsolable: she did not know what she would do without him. His life and work was commemorated in central London in the Albert Memorial and the Royal Albert Hall, both characteristic monuments of their age, an age of which he was not only an accomplished and distinguished representative; but a guide through what he called a period of the most wonderful transition.
August 16th, "Peterloo Massacre". A mass meeting was arranged by the Manchester radicals to hear Richard Carlile and Henry 'Orator' Hunt, a speaker who advocated annual parliaments, universal suffrage, and the ballot. It was a glorious summer's day, and contingents from all those satellite towns poured into Manchester gathering in St. Peter's Fields, Trouble arose between the crowd and the Lancashire militia who were present on the plea of preserving order. The troops charged and killed several persons, to the intense indignation of radical sympathizers in every part of Great Britain.
The incident quickly became known as the Peterloo Massacre - an allusion to the Battle of Waterloo four years earlier. Even some of the mill masters were horrified. Rochdale millowner Thomas Chadwick, who was at the scene, described the massacre as: "An inhuman outrage committed on an unarmed, peaceful assembly."
To add insult to injury, Hunt, Sam Bamford (who had led the Middleton contingent but had taken no part in the speeches), and several others were arrested. Hunt, Bamford and two others were convicted of "being persons of a wicked and turbulent disposition" they had "conspired together to create a disturbance of the peace ...in a formidable and menacing manner, with sticks, clubs and other offensive weapons." Hunt got two and a half years' gaol, the others a year each.
Manchester Yeomanry charge at Peterloo SABRES aloft, Manchester Yeomanry charge into the crowd at Peterloo
William Parry explores the Northwest Passage
South Shetland Islands discovered by British explorer William Smith
April 1-8, The Radical War, also known as the Scottish Insurrection of 1820, was a week of strikes and unrest, a culmination of Radical demands for reform in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland which had become prominent in the early years of the French Revolution, but had then been repressed during the long Napoleonic Wars.
An economic downturn after the wars ended brought increasing unrest. Artisan workers, particularly weavers in Scotland, sought action to reform an uncaring government, gentry fearing revolutionary horrors recruited militia and the government deployed an apparatus of spies, informers and agents provocateurs to stamp out the movement.
A Committee of Organisation for Forming a Provisional Government put placards around the streets of Glasgow late on Saturday 1 April, calling for an immediate national strike. On Monday 3 April work stopped in a wide area of central Scotland and in a swirl of disorderly events a small group marched towards the Carron Company ironworks to seize weapons, but while stopped at Bonnymuir they were attacked by Hussars. Another small group from Strathaven marched to meet a rumoured larger force, but were warned of an ambush and dispersed. Militia taking prisoners to Greenock jail were attacked by local people and the prisoners released. James Wilson of Strathaven was singled out as a leader of the march there, and at Glasgow was executed by hanging, then decapitated. Of those seized by the British army at Bonnymuir, John Baird and Andrew Hardie were similarly executed at Stirling after making short defiant speeches. Twenty other Radicals were sentenced to penal transportation.
It became evident that government agents had actively fomented the unrest to bring radicals into the open. The insurrection was largely forgotten as attention focussed on better publicised Radical events in England. Two years later, enthusiasm for the visit of King George IV to Scotland successfully boosted loyalist sentiment, ushering in a new-found Scottish national identity.
|1821||June 24, South American patriots under Simón Bolívar defeated Spanish royalists on the plains near Caracas, Venezuela, in the Battle of Carabobo.|
May 24, part of the Latin American wars of independence from Spanish rule, the Battle of Pichincha took place on the lower slopes of Cerro Pichincha and ended in victory for South American rebels.
Charles Babbage (1792-1871) designed his first mechanical computer, the first prototype for the difference engine. Babbage invented 2 machines the Analytical Engine (a general purpose mathematical device, see 1834) and the Difference Engine (a re-invention of Mueller's 1786 machine for solving polynomials), both machines were too complicated to be built (although attempt was made in 1832) - but the theories worked. The analytical engine (outlined in 1833) involved many processes similar to the early electronic computers - notably the use of punched cards for input.
Georges Cuvier established new standards and methods in
stratigraphy and palaeontology
|1823||The first public railway was the Stockton and
Darlington Railway, which opened in 1823 with Stephenson designed locos, the
first of which was called Locomotion.
Mammoth and human bones unearthed together on the Gower Peninsula, Wales, indicating that the two species co-existed.
The Anti-Slavery Society was founded in 1823. Many of the campaigners were those who had previously campaigned against the slave trade.
December 2, The Monroe Doctrine was expressed during President Monroe's seventh annual message to Congress. While the U.S.A. was not yet a world power, the European powers, according to Monroe, were obligated to respect the Western Hemisphere as the United States' sphere of interest.
Transcript of Monroe Doctrine (1823)
At the proposal of the Russian Imperial Government, made through the minister of the Emperor residing here, a full power and instructions have been transmitted to the minister of the United States at St. Petersburg to arrange by amicable negotiation the respective rights and interests of the two nations on the northwest coast of this continent. A similar proposal has been made by His Imperial Majesty to the Government of Great Britain, which has likewise been acceded to. The Government of the United States has been desirous by this friendly proceeding of manifesting the great value which they have invariably attached to the friendship of the Emperor and their solicitude to cultivate the best understanding with his Government. In the discussions to which this interest has given rise and in the arrangements by which they may terminate the occasion has been judged proper for asserting, as a principle in which the rights and interests of the United States are involved, that the American continents, by the free and independent condition which they have assumed and maintain, are henceforth not to be considered as subjects for future colonization by any European powers. . .
It was stated at the commencement of the last session that a great effort was then making in Spain and Portugal to improve the condition of the people of those countries, and that it appeared to be conducted with extraordinary moderation. It need scarcely be remarked that the results have been so far very different from what was then anticipated. Of events in that quarter of the globe, with which we have so much intercourse and from which we derive our origin, we have always been anxious and interested spectators. The citizens of the United States cherish sentiments the most friendly in favor of the liberty and happiness of their fellow-men on that side of the Atlantic. In the wars of the European powers in matters relating to themselves we have never taken any part, nor does it comport with our policy to do so. It is only when our rights are invaded or seriously menaced that we resent injuries or make preparation for our defense. With the movements in this hemisphere we are of necessity more immediately connected, and by causes which must be obvious to all enlightened and impartial observers. The political system of the allied powers is essentially different in this respect from that of America. This difference proceeds from that which exists in their respective Governments; and to the defense of our own, which has been achieved by the loss of so much blood and treasure, and matured by the wisdom of their most enlightened citizens, and under which we have enjoyed unexampled felicity, this whole nation is devoted. We owe it, therefore, to candor and to the amicable relations existing between the United States and those powers to declare that we should consider any attempt on their part to extend their system to any portion of this hemisphere as dangerous to our peace and safety. With the existing colonies or dependencies of any European power we have not interfered and shall not interfere. But with the Governments who have declared their independence and maintain it, and whose independence we have, on great consideration and on just principles, acknowledged, we could not view any interposition for the purpose of oppressing them, or controlling in any other manner their destiny, by any European power in any other light than as the manifestation of an unfriendly disposition toward the United States. In the war between those new Governments and Spain we declared our neutrality at the time of their recognition, and to this we have adhered, and shall continue to adhere, provided no change shall occur which, in the judgement of the competent authorities of this Government, shall make a corresponding change on the part of the United States indispensable to their security.
The late events in Spain and Portugal show that Europe is still unsettled. Of this important fact no stronger proof can be adduced than that the allied powers should have thought it proper, on any principle satisfactory to themselves, to have interposed by force in the internal concerns of Spain. To what extent such interposition may be carried, on the same principle, is a question in which all independent powers whose governments differ from theirs are interested, even those most remote, and surely none of them more so than the United States. Our policy in regard to Europe, which was adopted at an early stage of the wars which have so long agitated that quarter of the globe, nevertheless remains the same, which is, not to interfere in the internal concerns of any of its powers; to consider the government de facto as the legitimate government for us; to cultivate friendly relations with it, and to preserve those relations by a frank, firm, and manly policy, meeting in all instances the just claims of every power, submitting to injuries from none. But in regard to those continents circumstances are eminently and conspicuously different.
It is impossible that the allied powers should extend their political system to any portion of either continent without endangering our peace and happiness; nor can anyone believe that our southern brethren, if left to themselves, would adopt it of their own accord. It is equally impossible, therefore, that we should behold such interposition in any form with indifference. If we look to the comparative strength and resources of Spain and those new Governments, and their distance from each other, it must be obvious that she can never subdue them. It is still the true policy of the United States to leave the parties to themselves, in hope that other powers will pursue the same course. . . .
Transcription courtesy of the Avalon Project at Yale Law School.
|1825||Georges Cuvier announces his catastrophe
September 27, Stockton-Darlington Railway Opened. English engineer George Stephenson is best known as the pioneer of the steam locomotive. On September 27, 1825, the Locomotion, a steam locomotive designed by Stephenson, pulled the first train on the Stockton to Darlington Railway. In 1830, the Liverpool to Manchester Railway was opened, for which he had designed his famous Rocket steam locomotive. Stephenson had thus demonstrated the potential for railway transport. The railways became very popular with passengers. Stephenson was involved in the development of the London to Birmingham, Manchester to Leeds, and other railways.
World population reached 1 billion.
Completion of the Erie Canal, a 360 mile waterway linking Lake Erie to the Atlantic coast and dramatically reducing the cost of bringing goods to the New York area.
Miramichi Fire in New Brunswick burned three million acres and left 160 people dead.
|1826||Pierre Dupin produces a cartogram of France, the
first chloropleth map (also dated to 1819).
The Zoological Society of London (sometimes known by the abbreviation ZSL) is a learned society founded in April 1826 by Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles, Lord Auckland, Sir Humphry Davy, Joseph Sabine, Nicholas Aylward Vigors and other eminent naturalists. Raffles was also the first President, but died shortly after assuming this office in July 1826. He was succeeded by the Marquess of Lansdowne, who obtained a parcel of land in Regent's Park from the Crown at a nominal rent, and who supervised the building of the first animal houses. It received a Royal Charter from George IV on 27 March 1829.
July 5, Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles passed away a day before his 45th birthday in 1826. A few years earlier, in 1821 and 1822, he contributed two papers in the Transactions of the Zoological Society, London, with descriptions of some 34 species of birds and 13 species of mammals, chiefly from Sumatra. Most of the new species he named are valid today, and these animals will continue to remind us of the contributions he has made. Animals named by Raffles himself include:
March 26, Ludwig van Beethoven died of cirrhosis of the liver in Vienna.
October 20 The Battle of Navarino which is a
decisive naval engagement during the Greek War of Independence. The combined
fleets of Britain, France, and Russia sailed into Navarino Bay in the
south-west of modern-day Greece to stop the Ottoman fleet under Ibrahim Pasha.
The Turko-Egyptian fleet was annihilated, which led to the Turkish evacuation
Paul Erman measures the magnetic field of the Earth; his measurements become the basis for Gauss's theory of Earth's magnetic field.
December 24, Trial of the Edinburgh body-snatchers (Resurrection Men) Burke and Hare. The trial opened on the morning of Christmas Eve 1828 and the following morning it took the jury just 50 minutes to find Burke guilty. He was sentenced to hang. Before the execution was carried out, on January 29 1829, he made a full confession of all the 16 crimes but denied that the pair ever robbed a grave.
January 28, William Burke was hanged.
French tailor Barthélemy Thimonnier developed the first practical sewing machine. Thimonniers machine utilized a needle with a hooked-tip that moved up and down by means of a foot treadle and a return spring. The machine produced a chain stitch. Thimonnier did not benefit from his invention: when he tried to install 80 machines into a clothing factory in Paris, they were sabotaged by tailors worried that they would lose their livelihood.
April 6, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints was formed by American prophet Joseph Smith at Fayette, New York.
May 24, the first line of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad opened with the maiden trip of Peter Cooper's locomotive Tom Thumb.
May 28, the Indian Removal Act was passed, allowing U.S. President Andrew Jackson to grant American Indian tribes unsettled western prairie land in exchange for their settlements within the borders of extant U.S. states, thereby clearing the way for further white settlement.
Foundation of the Royal Geographical
Charles Darwin begins his historic Beagle voyages.
James Ross explores the Northwest Passage in both directions.
Omani Busaidi Dynasty relocates its head of government to the island of Zanzibar.
Charles Babbage and Joseph Clement produce a prototype segment of his difference engine, which operates on 6-digit numbers and 2nd-order differences (i.e. can tabulate quadratic polynomials). The complete engine, which would be room-sized, is planned to be able to operate both on 6th-order differences with numbers of about 20 digits, and on 3rd-order differences with numbers of 30 digits. Each addition would be done in two phases, the second one taking care of any carries generated in the first. The output digits would be punched into a soft metal plate, from which a plate for a printing press could be made. But there are various difficulties, and no more than this prototype piece is ever assembled.
|1833||August 23, Parliament passed the Slavery Abolition Act. This act gave all slaves in the British Empire their freedom. The British government paid compensation to the slave owners. The amount that the plantation owners received depended on the number of slaves that they had. For example, the Bishop of Exeter's 665 slaves resulted in him receiving £12,700.|
August 1, all slaves in the British Empire were emancipated, but still indentured to their former owners in an apprenticeship system which was finally abolished in 1838.
George Scheutz, of Stockholm, produces a small difference engine in wood, after reading a brief description of Babbage's project.
Babbage conceives, and begins to design, his "Analytical Engine". The program was stored on read-only memory, specifically in the form of punch cards. Babbage continues to work on the design for years, though after about 1840 the changes are minor. The machine would operate on 40-digit numbers; the "mill" (CPU) would have 2 main accumulators and some auxiliary ones for specific purposes, while the "store" (memory) would hold perhaps 100 more numbers. There would be several punch card readers, for both programs and data; the cards would be chained and the motion of each chain could be reversed. The machine would be able to perform conditional jumps. There would also be a form of microcoding: the meaning of instructions would depend on the positioning of metal studs in a slotted barrel, called the "control barrel". The machine would do an addition in 3 seconds and a multiplication or division in 2-4 minutes.
|1835|| November 7, The first Texas provisional government was
formed at San Felipe de Austin. This council passed a declaration of support
for the 1824 Mexican constitution, and appointed a governor and other
officials. This council stopped short of declaring Texas
December 20, The first declaration of independence for modern Texas, by both Anglo-Texian settlers and local Tejanos, was signed in Goliad .
|1836|| March 2, The Convention of 1836 was
convened at Washington-on-the-Brazos with Richard Ellis presiding, and the
Texas Declaration of Independence was enacted effectively creating the
independent, white-ruled Republic of Texas.
Ten years of independence brought the Texas republic epidemics, financial crises and continued clashes with Mexico. But enduring Texas imagery was born in this period: the American cowboy; Texas Rangers with their Colt six-shooters; the rugged individualism of Sam Houston. On December 29, 1845, Texas joined the United States.
March 6, The thirteen day Siege of the Alamo ended as Mexican General Antonio López de Santa Anna's forces defeated the 183 Texans defending the small mission (which would eventually become the center of the city of San Antonio). Remember the Alamo! became the battle cry of the Texas Revolution.
April 21, Sam Houston defeated the Mexican Army at the Battle of San Jacinto, near the present-day city of Houston. General Santa Anna's entire force of 1,600 men were killed or captured by Texas General Sam Houston's army of 800 Texans; only nine Texans died.
May 1836, Texas claimed the Rio Grande as its southern and western limit, according to the Treaties of Velasco. Mexico rejected the treaty as invalid and refused to recognize the existence of the Republic of Texas, although it was recognized by every other major power. Mexico insisted that Texas remained its province. Texas tried to gain recognition from Mexico as an independent state, putting the Nueces as the territorial limit in the negotiation table, to no avail. The British tried to mediate but the Mexican government refused to accept mediation.
The Republic of Texas
The master criminal and genius, Professor James Moriarty is born. He was the son of Dr. James Noel, and Morcar Moriarty.
February 10, Russian author Aleksandr Pushkin was killed in a duel defending his wife's honour.
April 8, The Great Western, the earliest regular transatlantic steamer, embarked on its maiden voyage from Bristol, England, to New York City.
Regular steamship service begins across the Atlantic Ocean.
|1839||Former slave-owning sugar planters riot in Jamaica, forcing a showdown between Prime Minister Robert Peel and Queen Victoria. The Queen triumphs and order is soon restored.|
February 6, Maori tribes of New Zealand signed the Treaty of Waitangi with Great Britain, a historic agreement purported to protect Maori rights that was the immediate basis of the British annexation of New Zealand.
Birth of Fu Manchu, son of Sir William Clayton and Ling Ju Hai. Destined to become a master criminal, Fu Manchu's murderous plots are marked by the extensive use of arcane methods; he disdains guns or explosives, preferring dacoits, Thuggee, and members of other secret societies as his agents armed with knives, or using "pythons and hamadryads... fungi and my tiny allies, the bacilli... my black spiders" and other peculiar animals or natural chemical weapons. According to some authorities on Chinese customs "Fu Manchu" is a title of honor, which means "the Warlike Manchu." In the early years of his career, Fu Manchu is an assassin sent on missions by the Si-Fan, but he quickly rises to become head of that dreaded secret society. At first, the Si-Fan's goal is to throw the Europeans out of Asia; later, the group attempts to intervene more generally in world politics, while funding itself by more ordinary crime. Dr. Fu Manchu is believed to be working to extend his considerable lifespan by use of the elixir vitae, a formula he has already spent decades trying to perfect.
March 30, The English dandy Beau Brummell died, destitute and mad, in Caen, France.
14 October, Dr. Gottlieb Wilhelm Leitner (1840–1899) was born. He was the builder of the Shah Jehan Mosque, and founder of the Oriental Institute, at Woking, Surrey, England. As a child he showed an extraordinary ability in languages. At the age of eight he went to Constantinople to learn Arabic and Turkish, and by the age of ten he was fluent in Turkish, Arabic and most European languages. At fifteen, he was appointed Interpreter (First Class) to the British Commissariat in the Crimea, with the rank of colonel. When the Crimean War ended, he wanted to become a priest and went to London to study at King’s College. He returned to Europe in the late 1870s to pursue studies at Heidelberg University (Holland), and he also undertook work for the Austrian, Prussian and British Governments. His ambition now was to found a centre for the study in Europe of Oriental languages, culture and history. On his return to England in 1881, he sought a suitable site for his proposed institution, and in 1883 came upon the vacant Royal Dramatic College in Woking, a building admirably suited for the purpose.
The Opium Wars between Great Britain and China end. China cedes Hong Kong back to the British, who reopen the city's ports for trade.
Babbage's difference engine project is officially cancelled. (The cost overruns have been considerable, and Babbage is spending too much time on redesigning the Analytical Engine.)
The Disruption of 1843 was a schism within the established Church of Scotland, in which 450 ministers of the Church broke away, over the issue of the Church's relationship with the State, to form the Free Church of Scotland, being commonly known as the 'Wee Free'. It came at the end of a bitter conflict within the established Church, and had huge effects not only within the Church, but also upon Scottish civic life. The evangelical element had been demanding the purification of the Church, and attacked the patronage system that allowed rich landowners to select the local ministers. It became a political battle between evangelicals on one side and the "Moderates" and gentry on the other.
24 May, Inventor Samuel Finley Breese Morse (April 27, 1791 April 2, 1872), an American, painter of portraits and historic scenes, and co-inventor (with Alfred Vail) of the Morse Code, sends his famous first telegraph message, "What hath God wrought" to officially open the first telegraph line which ran along the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad between the US Capitol and Baltimore.
6 June, George Williams originated the Young Men's Christian Association (YMCA) in London.
|1845||February 28, The U.S. Congress passed a bill that would
authorize the United States to annex the Republic of Texas over Mexican and
Two companies, the East Indian Railway Company operating from Calcutta, and the Great Indian Peninsula Railway (GIPR) operating from Bombay, are formed.
March 1, U.S. President John Tyler signed the bill that would authorize the United States to annex the Republic of Texas. The legislation set the date for annexation for December 29 of the same year.
October 13, a majority of voters in the Republic of Texas approved a proposed constitution that was later accepted by the US Congress, making Texas a U.S. state on the same day annexation took effect (therefore bypassing a territorial phase). One of the primary motivations for annexation was that the Texas government had incurred huge debts which the United States agreed to assume upon annexation.
The red, white and blue flag with its lone star adopted by the republic in 1839 became the state flag.
Sam Houston favored the annexation of Texas to the United States, and was elected its first United States Senator in 1846. In that station he remained until 1859, when he was chosen governor of Texas.
The annexation resolution has been the topic of some incorrect historical beliefschiefly, that the resolution granted Texas the explicit right to secede from the Union. This was a right argued by some to be implicitly held by all states at the time, up until the conclusion of the Civil War. However, no such right was explicitly enumerated in the resolution. The resolution did include two unique provisions: first, it gave the new state of Texas the right to divide itself into as many as five states with approval of its legislature. Second, Texas did not have to surrender its public lands to the federal government. While Texas did cede all territory outside of its current area to the federal government in 1850, it did not cede any public lands within its current boundaries. This means that generally, the only lands owned by the federal government within Texas have actually been purchased by the government.
Blight strikes the potato crop in Ireland. The Great Famine or the Great Hunger (Irish: An Gorta Mór or An Drochshaol) is the name given to the famine in Ireland between 1845 and 1849. The Famine was partly due to "the (potato) Blight" (also known as phytophthora) the oomycete that almost instantly destroyed the primary food source for many Irish people. Serious famine develops because, at the time, over six million people in Britain and Ireland subsist almost completely on potatoes. The Potato Famine leads to a massive Irish emigration to Great Britain, the United States, Canada, and Australia.
First Arab slave traders arrive in Uganda.
February 10, The British beat the Sikhs in northwestern India at the Battle of Sobraon, the most decisive engagement of the First Sikh War.
May 13, tensions between Mexico and the United States—stemming from the U.S. annexation of Texas (1845)—led the U.S. Congress on this day in 1846 to approve overwhelmingly a declaration of war against its southern neighbour.
June 14, The Bear Flag Republic was declared in
California in an informal rebellion that lasted less than a month. Before the
Bear Flag Republic was declared, California was a department of Mexico called
Alta California. In the 1840's, American pioneers traveled in large wagon
trains from Missouri to Alta California only to be met by this frustrating
June 19, Alexander Joy Cartwright arranged a baseball game between the New York Knickerbockers and the New York Nine at Hoboken, New Jersey—the first baseball game to use the set of rules on which today's game is based.
January 30, The town of Yerba Beuna officially renamed as San
The treaty helped precipitate civil war in both Mexico and the United States. In Mexico it left many citizens unsure of their country's future as an independent state; political extremism followed, and civil war broke out at the end of 1857. The expansion of slavery in the United States had been settled by the Missouri Compromise (1820), but addition of the vast Mexican tract as new U.S. territory reopened the question. Attempts to settle it led to the uneasy Compromise of 1850 and the Kansas–Nebraska Act (1854).
June 10, The Chicago Tribune, one of the leading daily American newspapers and long the dominant, sometimes strident, voice of the Midwest, began publication.
Babbage designs an improved, simpler difference engine, a project which took 2 years. The machine could operate on 7th-order differences and 31-digit numbers, this device would become the first product of Babbage's newly formed Imperial Business Machines (IBM) company.
The United Presbyterian Church of Scotland is established.
January, Gold discovered in California. "It was in the
first part of January, 1848, when the gold was discovered at Coloma, where I
was then building a saw-mill. -- The Discovery of Gold in California" - by Gen.
John A. Sutter
May 29, Wisconsin became the 30th state of the Union.
24 Jan, Carpenter James Wilson Marshall found nuggets of gold in California's American River near the site of a sawmill he was building for John Sutter, ushering in the California gold rush.
23 March, At the Battle of Novara, during the first Italian War of Independence, outnumbered Austrian troops under Field Marshal Joseph Radetzky destroyed the poorly trained Italian troops of Charles Albert, king of Sardinia-Piedmont.
The first of the great fires that visited San Francisco
occurred at 6 oclock on the morning of December 24, 1849, when it was
estimated that $1,000,000 worth of property was destroyed.
Discovery of the continental slope and the continental shelf break.
Start of major drought in Arizona; it lasts until 1905.
Harrod's department store is founded in London's Knightsbridge.
The world's first women's rights conventionis held in New York.
The first machine gun is introduced.
Gold is discovered in California and Australia.
April 4, With a population totaling about 1,600, Los Angeles was incorporated as an American city.
A telegraph cable is laid along the seabed of the English Channel.
|1851||May 1, The Great Exhibition of 1851 opened in Hyde Park, London in the Crystal
Palace, a cast-iron and plate-glass building, which was designed by Sir Joseph Paxton.
In 1851 Great Britain was arguably the leader of the industrial revolution, with a population of 21 million, and feeling very secure in that ideal. The Great Exhibition of 1851 in London was conceived to symbolize this industrial, military and economic superiority of Great Britain. Just representing the feats of Britain itself would have excluded many of the technological achievements pioneered by the British in its many colonies and protectorates, so it was decided to make the exhibit truly international with invitations being extended to almost all of the colonized world. The British also felt that it was important to show their achievements right alongside those of "less civilized" countries. The prevailing attitude in England at the time was ripe for the somewhat arrogant parading of accomplishments. Many felt secure, economically and politically, and Queen Victoria was eager to reinforce the feeling of contentment with her reign. It was during the mid-1850s that the word "Victorian" began to be employed to express a new self-consciousness, both in relation to the nation and to the period through which it was passing.
The exhibition was also a triumph for Victoria's German husband, Albert, whom she had married in 1840. Despite outbursts of opposition to Albert by the press the family life of the Victorian court began to be considered increasingly as a model for the whole country. Albert had appreciated the achievements of Prime Minister Robert Peel's political and military advances and publicly advocated the advancement of industry and science. These facts began to sway opinion in his favor as respectable foundations of family life and industrial supremacy were becoming rapidly acquainted with the monarchy of Victoria and Albert. Conceived by prince Albert, the Great Exhibition was held in Hyde Park in London in the specially constructed Crystal Palace.
The Crystal Palace was originally designed by Sir Joseph Paxton in only 10 days and was a huge iron goliath with over a million feet of glass. It was important that the building used to showcase these achievements be grandiose and innovative.
Over 13,000 exhibits were displayed and viewed by over 6,200,000 visitors to the exhibition. The millions of visitors that journeyed to the Great Exhibition of 1851 marveled at the industrial revolution that was propelling Britain into the greatest power of the time. Among the 13,000 exhibits from all around the world were the Jacquard loom, an envelope machine, tools, kitchen appliances, steel-making displays and a reaping machine from the United States. The objects on display came from all parts of the world, including India and the countries with recent white settlements, such as Australia and New Zealand, that constituted the new empire. Many of the visitors who flocked to London came from European cities. The profits from the event allowed for the foundation of public works such as the Albert Hall, the Science Museum, the National History Museum and the Victoria and Albert Museum.
This "bigger and better" building was divided into a series of courts depicting the history of art and architecture from ancient Egypt through the Renaissance, as well as exhibits from industry and the natural world. Major concerts were held in the Palace's huge arched Centre Transept, which also contained the world's largest organ. The Centre Transept also housed a circus and was the scene of daring feats by world famous acts such as the tightrope walker Blondin. National exhibitions were also staged within its glass and iron walls, including the world's first aeronautical exhibition (held in 1868) and the first national motor show, plus cat shows, dog shows, pigeon shows, honey, flower and other shows.
The Crystal Palace itself was almost outshone by the park in which it stood, which contained a magnificent series of fountains, comprising almost 12,000 individual jets. The largest of these threw water to a height of 250ft. Some 120,000 gallons of water flowed through the system when it was in full play. The park also contained unrivaled collections of statues, many of which were copies of great works from around the world, and a geological display which included a replica lead mine and the first attempts anywhere in the world to portray life-size restorations of extinct animals, including dinosaurs. Crystal Palace park was also the scene of spectacular Brock's fireworks displays.
After the Great Exhibition closed, the Crystal Palace was moved to Sydenham Hill in South London and reconstructed in what was, in effect, a 200 acre Victorian theme park. The new Crystal Palace park at Sydenham was opened by Queen Victoria on June 10th, 1854.
Ginger ale created in Ireland.
22 December, The first train in India becomes operational. It is used for the hauling of construction material in Roorkee.
March 20, American author Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin was published in book form.
Anton Gaudí was born in Catalonia, Spain,
in 1852 though no one knows exactly where. While many believe his birthplace to
be the town of Reus, others claim it was in fact Riudoms. It is known, however,
that he was baptized in Reus a day after his birth. The artist's parents,
Francesc Gaudí Serra and Antonia Cornet Bertran, both came from families
April 7, Queen Victoria's son, Leopold George Duncan
Albert (7 April 1853 28 March 1884) later Prince Leopold and Duke of
Albany, is born. His birth is highly publicized, mainly because Queen Victoria
herself used chloroform during childbirth. Dr. John Snow gave her chloroform,
but using an open-drop method rather than the inhaler he had earlier
To Babbage's delight, the Scheutzes complete the first full-scale difference engine, which they call a Tabulating Machine. It operates on 15-digit numbers and 4th-order differences, and produces printed output as Babbage's would have. A second machine is later built to the same design by the firm of Brian Donkin of London.
October, The Crimean War (October 1853–February 1856), war fought mainly on the Crimean Peninsula between the Russians and the British, French, and Ottoman Turkish, with support, from January 1855, by the army of Sardinia-Piedmont. The war arose from the conflict of great powers in the Middle East and was more directly caused by Russian demands to exercise protection over the Orthodox subjects of the Ottoman Empire.
Beginning in 1854, American warships conducted cruises along the Yangtze River in China. Initially the mission of these cruises was to show the American flag and support American consular officers. The mission became more complex over time with the added trappings of supporting American foreign policy in defining the relationship between the USA and China and later with Japan.
March 20, A meeting of Whigs, anti-Nebraska Democrats, and Free-Soilers in Ripon, Wisconsin, proposed the formation of what became the Republican Party in the United States.
March 31, U.S. Commodore Matthew Perry and representatives of Japan signed the Convention of Kanagawa (日米和親条約, Nichibei Washin Jōyaku) or Kanagawa Treaty (神奈川条約, Kanagawa Jōyaku) was signed at Kanagawa (now part of Yokohama) in Japan, ending that country's period of seclusion known as Sakoku (Japanese: 鎖国, literally "country in chains" or "lock up of country") which lasted from 1639 until 1854. The treaty was signed as a result of pressure from U.S. Commodore Matthew C. Perry, who sailed into Tokyo Bay with a fleet of warships in July 1853 and demanded the opening of the Japanese ports of Shimoda and Hakodate to United States trade, guaranteed the safety of shipwrecked U.S. sailors and established a permanent consul. This was an unequal treaty imposed on Japan by the superior strength of Perry's fleet. However, it remained illegal for Japanese people to leave Japan until the Meiji Restoration (1868).
May 30, the Kansas-Nebraska Act was passed, providing for the territorial organization of Kansas and Nebraska under the principle of popular sovereignty.
March 30, The Treaty of Paris was signed, ending the Crimean War.
May 21, During the small civil war known as Bleeding Kansas—a dispute over control of the new U.S. territory of Kansas under the doctrine of popular sovereignty—the town of Lawrence was sacked by a proslavery mob intent on destroying the “hotbed of abolitionism.”May 24, a group of abolitionists led by John Brown launched a nighttime raid on a proslavery settlement at Pottawatomie Creek in Kansas Territory during which five men were murdered.
James Maxwell demonstrates that all electromagnetic and optical phenomenon were explainable in terms of stresses in the one ether.
July 3, The U.S. House of Representatives voted to admit Kansas to statehood under the antislavery resolution known as the Topeka Constitution, despite the opposition of the Senate and President Franklin Pierce.
July 9/10 Nikola Tesla born in Smiljan, Lika (Austria-Hungary).
William Thomas Blanford notes that the "Talchir conglomerates" in India were caused by glaciation. This idea will lead to the realisation that ice ages occurred many times in the past - and in both hemispheres.
The state of Awadh/Oudh was annexed by the British East India Company. Mughal emperor Bahadur Shah Zafar was told that he would be the last Emperor and the Mughal Empire would cease to exist after him.
Excavations in Germany uncover Neanderthal fossils.
Surveyor Andrew Waugh measures Peak XV (Everest) at 29,002 feet (8,840 m)
March 6, U.S. Chief Justice Roger B. Taney announced the Dred Scott decision, making slavery legal in all U.S. territories.
May, 1857, the famous Sepoy Rebellion erupted, a mutiny
by native troops that swept across northern India, weakened the British Raj,
and set up future confrontations between India and Britain. Small precursors of
brewing discontent involving incidences of arson in cantonment areas, began to
manifest themselves in January. When the native troops of the Bengal army rose
against their colonial masters in May, the ensuing insurrection was to become
the bloodiest in the history of the British Empire. This war brought about the
end of the British East India Company's rule in India, and led to direct rule
by the British government (British Raj) of much of the Indian subcontinent,
although some states retained nominal independence under their respective
September 11, the Mountain Meadows massacre of the Baker-Fancher emigrant party at Mountain Meadows by Mormon militia and some Paiute supporters. The emigrants mostly from four northwestern counties in Arkansas were travelling through the Utah Territory during the Utah War to California. Sources estimate that between 100 and 140 men, women and children were killed at Mountain Meadows, a rest stop on the Old Spanish Trail, in the Utah territory. Mormons along the way had mistakenly linked them with a number of crimes and past Mormon persecutions. The emigrants stopped to rest at Mountain Meadows, near where anxious members of the Iron County Military District of the Nauvoo Legion (the Mormon militia in the Utah Territory) had been mustered to fight the approaching United States Army, which Mormons thought intended to destroy them. Initially intending to orchestrate an Indian massacre, the local leaders of church and state directed Indian agent John D. Lee to lead an auxiliary contingent of Paiute tribesmen along with some militiamen disguised as Native Americans in a raid. The emigrants fought back, and a siege ensued. Believing that complicity in the siege by Mormons would complicate the Utah War, the militia induced the party to surrender and give up their weapons. After escorting the emigrants out of their fortification, the militiamen then executed an estimated 120 men, women and children. Seventeen smaller children were spared. Investigations, interrupted by the U.S. Civil War, resulted eventually in nine indictments being issued in 1874. Despite others' involvement, only John D. Lee was tried and convicted. Lee was executed by firing squad at the location of the massacre in 1877.
Members of the ill-fated Baker-Fancher wagon train
The Fancher party's constituent trains left from four northwestern Arkansas counties.
Believed murdered at Mountain Meadows
Children who were returned to live with relatives
Seventeen small children, all under the age of seven, survived the Mountain Meadows Massacre. Two years after the Massacre, the orphans were returned to their families. These children were: Mary Elizabeth, Sarah Frances and William Twitty Baker, the children of George and Minerva Baker; Rebecca, Louisa and Sarah Dunlap, the daughters of Jesse and Mary Dunlap; Prudence Angeline and Georgia Ann Dunlap, the daughters of Lorenzo and Nancy Dunlap; Christopher and Tryphenia Fancher, the children of Alexander and Elizabeth Fancher; Nancy Sophronia Huff, the daughter of Peter and Saleta Huff; Felix Marion Jones, the son of John and Eloah Jones; John Calvin, Mary and Joseph Miller, the children of Josh and Matilda Miller; and Emberson Milum and William Henry Tackitt, the sons of Pleasant and Armilda Tackitt.
Fate unknown or evidence of survivorship in Utah Territory or Wyoming
Alfred Russel Wallace's Theory of Evolution.
Alfred Russel Wallace, a British naturalist, is best known for his formulation
of a theory of evolution by natural selection, at the same time as Charles
Darwin. Wallace formulated his ideas during an expedition to the Malay
Archipelago, where he noted differences between the animal species of Asia and
Australia. He corresponded with Darwin on his ideas. Both men produced a joint
paper on the theory of natural selection.
The first Tabulating Machine (see 1853) is bought by the Dudley Observatory in Albany, New York, and the second one by the British government. The Albany machine is used to produce a set of astronomical tables; but the observatory's director is then fired for this extravagant purchase, and the machine is never seriously used again, eventually ending up in a museum. The second machine, however, has a long and useful life.
The Fenian Brotherhood was initially founded in 1858 as the Irish Republican Brotherhood's American branch by John O'Mahony, James Stephens, and Michael Doheny. In the face of nativist suspicion, it quickly established an independent existence, although it still worked to gain Irish-American support for armed rebellion in Ireland. Initially, O'Mahony ran operations in the USA, sending funds to Stephens and the IRB in Ireland, disagreement over O'Mahony's leadership led to the formation of two Fenian Brotherhoods in 1865. The U.S. chapter of the movement was also sometimes referred to as the IRB. After the failed invasion of Canada, it was replaced by Clan na Gael.
The term Fenian derives from the Irish ''Na Fianna'' or ''Na Fianna Éireann'' who in Celtic mythology were a band of warriors formed to protect Ireland, Fionn Mac Cumhaill being the most famous of its warriors.
Sir Clements Markham of the British India Office organised a botanical expedition in 1858 to obtain seeds of the Cinchona tree for cultivation in India. The bark of the Cinchona tree is the best source of Quinine, the cure for Malaria. The botanist Richard Spruce collected for several years in south-western Ecuador and in 1860 seeds and plants were sent to both India and Kew Gardens in London. This was still at a time when local people kept the location of the trees a secret. The first plants sent to India in 1861 from Kew died, but later plantations in Travancore and Sikkim, and in Sri Lanka were successful. About the same time seeds, originally collected by Charles Ledger in Bolivia in 1864 and bought by the Dutch from an Australian in a private sale in London, were sent to Java. From these some 12,000 seedlings were produced; these were plants of Cinchona calisaya, which has a higher content of quinine than Cinchona pubescens grown by the British. In 1864 India and Java exchanged planting material.
April 8, German philosopher Edmund Husserl, founder of phenomenology, was born.
June 30, Jean-François Gravelet, known as Blondin, crossed Niagara Falls on a tightrope that was 335 metres (1,100 feet) long and 49 metres (160 feet) above the water.
August 28, Edwin Laurentine Drake (March 29, 1819 – November 9, 1880), also known as Colonel Drake, discovers oil in Titusville, Pennsylvania starting the American Petroleum industry. This so-called "Rock Oil" would replace whale oil in lamps. At one time Northwest Pennsylvania would produce half the world's oil.
Oct 14, Francois-Claudius Koeningstein, known to posterity as the anarchist Ravachol, was born to Dutch
and French parents at Saint-Chamond, near St. Etienne in Eastern
Edwin Laurentine Drake drills the world's first oil well in Titusville, Philadelphia
Harry Reid develops the elastic rebound theory of the cause of earthquakes, in which one fault moving against another causes the quakes.
Egyptian workers started working on the construction of the Canal in conditions described by historians as slave labor. The canal project was undertaken by former French Consul in Cairo and famous Canal digger Ferdinand de Lesseps.
French photographer Gaspard Felix Tournachon, also known as Nadar, carried out the first land surveys from aerial photographs taken from a balloon.
April 3, The Pony Express mail delivery system, which used continuous horse-and-rider relays along a 1,800-mile (2,900-km) route between St. Joseph, Missouri, and Sacramento, California, was launched in the United States. The Pony Express reduced the time for mail to travel between the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of the USA to around ten days. The service only operated for 18 months closing in October 1861.
May 18, Abraham Lincoln became the Republican candidate for the U.S. presidency on the third ballot at the Republican National Convention in Chicago.
The Pacific Telegraph Act of 1860 called for the facilitation of communication between the east and west coasts of the United States of America. Hiram Sibley of the Western Union Telegraph Company won the contract. In 1861, Benjamin Franklin Ficklin joined Hiram Sibley in helping to form the Pacific Telegraph Company of Nebraska. At the same time, Jeptha Wade was asked by Hiram Sibley to consolidate smaller telegraph companies in California. While the Pacific Telegraph Company built west from Omaha, Nebraska, the Overland Telegraph Company of California was thus formed and built east from Carson City, Nevada. With their connection in Salt Lake City, Utah on October 24, 1861, the final link between the east and west coasts of the United States of America was made by telegraph.The Pacific Telegraph Company and the Overland Telegraph Company of California were eventually absorbed into the Western Union Telegraph Company.
Etienne Moreau theorized on the properties and
distribution of ether. Edison begins research on a prototype Ether
Mississippi seceded from the Union on January 9, 1861,
and Florida on the 10th. Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas
October 24, With the connection of the lines being built by the Pacific Telegraph Company building west from Omaha, Nebraska, and the Overland Telegraph Company of California building east from Carson City, Nevada in Salt Lake City, Utah the final link between the east and west coasts of the United States of America was made by telegraph.The Pacific Telegraph Company and the Overland Telegraph Company of California were eventually absorbed into the Western Union Telegraph Company.
October 26, Closure of the Pony Express service. Since its replacement by the First Transcontinental Telegraph, the Pony Express has entered the romance of the American West. Its reliance on the ability and endurance of the individual riders and horses over technological innovation is part of "American rugged individualism".
February 6 Grant's Northern troops cunder the command of Union naval commodore Andrew Foote, leading a flotilla of ironclads, captured Fort Henry, Tennessee, a strategic Confederate position during the American Civil War.
April 4, Union forces under George B. McClellan began the unsuccessful Peninsular Campaign to capture the Confederate capital of Richmond, Virginia.
May 5,Mexico repelled the French forces of Napoleon III at the Battle of Puebla, a victory that became a symbol of resistance to foreign domination and is now celebrated as a national holiday, Cinco de Mayo.
May 20, U.S. President Abraham Lincoln signed the Homestead Act, which provided 160 acres of public land virtually free of charge to those who had lived on and cultivated the land for at least five years.
September 22, Lincoln issued a Preliminary Emancipation Proclamation.
October 8, Buell's forces ended Bragg's invasion of Kentucky in the Battle of Perryville.
December 13, Burnside's Union forces received a crushing blow in the Battle of Fredericksburg.
December 31-January 2, 1863 Union troops under Rosecrans forced the Confederates to retreat after the Battle of Murfreesboro (Stones River).
Speke and Grant are the first European explorers to visit the Buganda people in Uganda. Speke reaches the source of the White Nile, at Ripon falls issuing from Lake Victoria's north.
Angstrom Discovers Existence of Hydrogen in the Sun. Anders Jonas Ångström, a Swedish astronomer and physicist, is credited with the discovery of the presence of hydrogen in the atmosphere of the Sun. Ångström pioneered the study of spectroscopy, publishing Optiska Undersökningar (Optical Investigations) in 1853. In 1868 he published Recherches Sur le Spectre Solaire (Researches on the Solar Spectrum), in which he set out measurements of over 1,000 spectral lines in an atlas of the solar spectrum. The unit of measurement of wavelengths introduced in his work has been generally accepted as the angstrom.
First multispectral imagery taken by Du Hauron with a single-lens beam splitter technique.
Kelvin uses the Earth's cooling time to propose an age in the range 20-400 million years.
|1863||January 1 Lincoln issued the Emancipation
10 January,the Metropolitan Railway opened the world's first underground railway between Paddington (Bishop's Road) and Farringdon Street in London in an attempt to ease the traffic through the centre of London. It ran from Paddington to Farringdon, linking three mainline termini with the City, Londons central business district. Most of this 6 km (3? mi) line, still used today, runs under main roads and was built using cut and cover construction. This entails digging out a wide trench along the street, building retaining walls, and roofing over the trackbed before reinstating the roadway above. Locomotives with special condensing equipment were used to minimize steam emission in the tunnels.
March 3 The North passed a draft law.
May 1-4 Northern troops under Hooker were defeated in the Battle of Chancellorsville.
May 1-19 Grant's army defeated Confederates in Mississippi and began to besiege Vicksburg.
May 6 The Pacific Railroad bill passed the House of Representatives, and the Senate on June 20. Lincoln signed it into law on July 1 1862. The act called for several companies to build the railroad: from the west, the Central Pacific and the Nevada Central; and from the east, the newly chartered Union Pacific. Each was required to build only 50 miles in the first year; after that, only 50 more miles were required each year. Besides land grants along the right-of-way, each railroad was subsidized $16,000 for each mile built over an easy grade, $32,000 in the high plains, and $48,000 for each mile in the mountains. The race was on to see which road could build the furthest.
July 1-3 The Battle of Gettysburg ended in a Southern defeat and marked a turning point in the war.
July 4 Vicksburg fell to Northern troops.
July 8 Northern forces occupied Port Hudson, La.
September 19-20 Southern troops under Bragg won the Battle of Chickamauga.
November 19 Lincoln delivered the Gettysburg address at the dedication of the Civil War cemetery at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania.
November 23-25 Grant and Thomas led Union armies to victory in the Battle of Chattanooga.
US National Academy of Sciences initiated by Abraham Lincoln.
Granula was the first manufactured breakfast cereal invented by James Caleb Jackson in 1863. Granula was an early version of Grape-Nuts, comprising of heavy grains of bran-rich Graham flour. The grains had to be soaked overnight before use. The cereal was manufactured from a dough of Graham flour rolled into sheets and baked. The dried sheets were then broken into pieces, baked again, and broken into smaller pieces.
January 8 in Sacramento, California, Governor Leland
Stanford ceremoniously broke ground to begin construction of the Central
Pacific Railroad. The Central Pacific made great progress along the Sacramento
Valley, however construction was later slowed; first by the foothills of the
Sierra Nevada, then by the mountains themselves and most importantly by winter
snow storms. As a result, the Central Pacific expanded its efforts to hire
immigrant laborers (many of which were Chinese). The immigrants seemed to be
more willing to tolerate the horrible conditions, and progress continued.
Unfortunately, the increasing necessity for tunneling then began to slow
progess of the line yet again. To combat this, Central Pacific began to use the
newly-invented and very unstable nitroglycerin explosives which
accelerated both the rate of construction and the mortality of the laborers.
Appalled by the losses, the Central Pacific began to use less volatile
explosives. Construction began again in earnest.
James Clerk Maxwell presents equations describing electromagnetic fields.
February 3 The Hampton Roads Peace Conference
failed to end the American Civil War.
July 2, In London's East End, William Booth founded the ministry later called the Salvation Army.
July 4, Lewis Carroll's Alice's Adventures in Wonderland was published.
Joseph Lister Discovers Antiseptics. In 1865
British surgeon Joseph Lister encountered the germ theory, developed by Louis
Pasteur, that fermentation and putrefaction were caused by micro-organisms
brought into contact with organic matter. Lister applied carbolic acid to clean
instruments, and directly to wounds and dressings. Listers development of
the technique of sterilization greatly reduced mortality in surgery. related
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December 18, by proclamation of the U.S. secretary of state, the Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution, outlawing slavery, officially entered into force, having been ratified by the requisite states on December 6 1865.
June 14 - August 23, Seven Weeks' War. The Seven
Weeks War was an armed conflict between Austria and Prussia. The war was
fought for control over the 39-state German Confederation, following the
unsatisfactory conclusion of the Convention of Gastein (1865). The speed of
victory demonstrated the effectiveness of the Prussian military
1866-1868, Captain Nemo begins his campaign of destruction against the warships of the British Empire using the submarine Nautilus. The Nautilus caused many ships to sink by ramming them. In fact Nemo is Latin for "no one" and the real name of this mysterious individual is unknown. The impression is that Nemo was an anarchist philosopher rebelling against what he sees as the repressive governments of the world. He has also supplied gold to people on the island of Crete who are fighting for independence from Turkey. He is also a scientific genius who roams the depths of the sea in his submarine, the Nautilus, which he helped build on a deserted island. Nemo tries to project a stern, controlled confidence, but he is driven by a thirst for vengeance, and wracked by remorse over the deaths of his crewmembers and even by the deaths of enemy sailors. He eschews dry land having forsworn all ties with it, and when he does step on it, does so only when the land is uninhabited, such as with Antarctica and desert islands such as Lincoln Island. He, is quite enamored by the sea and holds that true freedom exists only beneath the waves. In keeping with his detestation for the nations of the surface he uses no products that are not marine in nature, be it food, clothing, furnishing or even, tobacco.
|1867||July 1, Dominion of Canada established
on this day in 1867, with the British North America Act, the British colonies of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Canada were united as the Dominion of Canada, and the province of Canada was separated into Quebec and Ontario.
Alfred Nobel Invents Dynamite. Swedish chemist and philanthropist Alfred Nobel is remembered for his invention of dynamite and for the endowment of the Alfred Nobel Foundation that awards prizes annually in a number of categories. Nobel had sought a safe way to handle the highly volatile nitroglycerine in industry, so he mixed nitroglycerin with kieselguhr to produce dynamite, a safer explosive, which he patented in 1867. He went on to develop gelignite in 1875 and a smokeless form of gunpowder, named ballistite, in 1887.
June 19, The archduke of Austria and emperor of Mexico, a man whose naive liberalism proved unequal to the international intrigues that had put him on the throne and to the brutal struggles within Mexico, Maximilian, was executed by a firing squad.
Karl Marx, along with Friedrich Engels, defined communism. In the Communist Manifesto, which they wrote and published themselves in London in 1848, Marx and Engels portrayed the natural evolution of a communist utopia from capitalism. This revolutionary theory added fuel to the social struggles that characterized Europe during the latter half of the 19th century. Marx theorized that competition among capitalists would force more and more of them to be enveloped by the growing masses. A proletarian dictatorship would rule until all vestiges of capitalism had been eliminated; a communist utopia would then naturally emerge. Marx and Engels founded the International Workingmans Association in 1864 to actively advocate their position and consider ways to speed the process.
The United States Geological Survey established.
March 30, William H. Seward, secretary of state under U.S. President Andrew Johnson, signed the Alaska Purchase, a treaty ceding Russian North America to the United States for a price—$7.2 million—that amounted to about two cents per acre.
April 6, The Japanese emperor Meiji issued the Charter Oath, which served to modernize the country during the Meiji Restoration.
May 16, The first of two key votes was held in the Senate impeachment trial of U.S. President Andrew Johnson, who was ultimately acquitted of all charges.
First working ether flyer mechanism demonstrated by Thomas A. Edison.
Sir Clements Markham of the British India Office organised a botanical expedition in 1858 to obtain seeds of the Cinchona tree for cultivation in India. The bark of the Cinchona tree is the best source of Quinine, the cure for Malaria. The botanist Richard Spruce collected for several years in south-western Ecuador and in 1860 seeds and plants were sent to both India and Kew Gardens in London. This was still at a time when local people kept the location of the trees a secret. The first plants sent to India in 1861 from Kew died, but later plantations in Travancore and Sikkim, and in Sri Lanka were successful. About the same time seeds, originally collected by Charles Ledger in Bolivia in 1864 and bought by the Dutch from an Australian in a private sale in London, were sent to Java. From these some 12,000 seedlings were produced; these were plants of Cinchona calisaya, which has a higher content of quinine than Cinchona pubescens grown by the British. In 1864 India and Java exchanged planting material.
June 10, Serbian Prince Michael III was assassinated, derailing the Balkan League's plans for a coordinated rebellion against the Ottomans and destroying the league.
2 June, Captain Nemo's submarine the Nautilus goes down in the Maelstrom, a large whirlpool off the coast of Norway.
15 October, Captian Nemo is said to have died, on board the Nautilus, at Dakkar Grotto under Lincoln Island in the South Pacific. The last rites were administered by Cyrus Harding, one of the castaways on the island who had been saved by the Captain himself, and the ship then submerged into the waters of the grotto.
May 10 Completion of the Trans-Continental
Railroad in the USA.
November 17 Suez Canal Opened. The Suez Canal (Arabic:
transliteration: Qana al-Suways), is a large artificial canal in Egypt, west of
the Sinai Peninsula. It is 163 km (101 miles) long and 300 m (984 ft) wide at
its narrowest point, and runs between Port Said (Bur Sa'id) on the
Mediterranean Sea, and Suez (al-Suways) on the Red Sea. The canal allows
two-way water transportation, most importantly between Europe and Asia without
circumnavigation of Africa. Before its opening in 1869, goods were sometimes
offloaded from ships and carried over land between the Mediterranean and the
Red Sea. The canal comprises two parts, north and south of the Great Bitter
Lake, linking the Mediterranean Sea to the Gulf of Suez on the Red
Ferdinand de Lesseps was born on November 19, 1805 in Versailles, France. His Family was long distinguished in the French diplomatic service. At age 19, having studied law, he was appointed eleve-counsel to his uncle, then the French ambassador to Lisbon. He served in Tunis later with his father, until 1832 the year of his fathers death. Then came 7 years in Egypt, later Rotterdam, Malaga, Barcelona and Madrid. With the new Viceroy Mohammed Said in Egypt, whom de Lesseps had befriended years ago, he rushed to Cairo and soon the construction of the Suez Canal under his command began. November 17, 1869 the Gran Opening with luxuries ceremonies, a Cairo opera house had been built for the occasion and Verdi had been commissioned to write Aida. De Lesseps became a hero presented with many decorations. De Lesseps was granted a "firman" or decree by the khedive Said of Egypt to run the Canal for 99 years after completion.De Lesseps died in France in 1894.
February 3, the Fifteenth Amendment to the Constitution of the United States was ratified, guaranteeing the right to vote regardless of race and intending to ensure, with the Fourteenth Amendment, the civil rights of former slaves.
Edison's Martian Expedition pilots primitive
Ether Flyer to Mars, and returns.
Discovery of liftwood on Mars revolutionizes flight. The Royal Botanical Gardens at Kew, London begins to offer rewards for viable liftwood plants and seeds.
June 21, Tientsin Massacre occurs in Tientsin, China. This was a violent outbreak of Chinese xenophobic sentiment, that nearly precipitated international warfare and signaled the end of the “cooperative policy” between China and the Western treaty powers. Before the incident, rumours circulated in Tientsin that the French Sisters of Charity were kidnapping and mutilating Chinese children.
Bismarck on France
Moltke (the senior) summed it up well: "What our sword has won in half a year our sword must guard for half a century"
|1871||Franco-Prussian war ends in German
Jan 1, The German Second Empire (1871 - 1918) was established at Versailles, France, following the unification of German states, with the king of Prussia as emperor and the architect of German unification, Otto van Bismarck, as chancellor. Under his leadership economic and military expansion led to Germanys emergence as a major world power.
Bismarck after the German unification of 1871
18 Jan , The German Second Empire, forged as a result of diplomacy rather than an outpouring of popular nationalist feeling, was founded on this date in the aftermath of three successful wars by the North German state of Prussia.
18 Mar, The Commune of Paris, which was an insurrection of Parisians against the French government, began, lasting until May 28. The Paris Commune was a short-lived French
revolutionary government that took power in 1871 in the aftermath of the defeat
of France in the Franco-Prussian War. With the government capitulating to the
peace terms of the Prussians, and the victorious Prussian army encamped outside
Paris, the city broke into revolt. The insurrection led to the establishment of
a proletarian dictatorship and the election of a council, which came to be
known as the Commune. The Communards, consisting of followers of the
revolutionary socialist Auguste Blanqui, and of Pierre Proudhon, who had died
in 1865, began to implement reforms to working conditions but were rapidly and
ruthlessly crushed by government forces, who massacred over 20,000 citizens,
while the Communards killed many of their hostages in retaliation. The Paris
Commune had lasted barely two months, but it became an important symbol to
revolutionary Communists. For Karl Marx, who analysed it in The Civil War in
France, the Commune vindicated his ideas on the process of history, confirming
revolution as a means to liberate the proletariat.
10 May, the Reichsland of Alsace-Lorraine, territory ceded
to the German Empire in the Treaty of Frankfurt of 10 May 1871 following the
Franco-Prussian war, was given a special status. Contrary to German hopes, the
population of Alsace-Lorraine did not merge quickly with the new Empire
May 13, With the Law of Guarantees (Legge Delle Guarentigie), the Italian government attempted to settle the question of its relationship with the Pope, who had been deprived of his lands in central Italy duringthe process of Italian national unification.
May 21, the Commune of Paris revolted against the French national government under Adolphe Thiers, beginning a period of violence known as “Bloody Week.”
Babbage produces a prototype section of the Analytical Engine's mill and printer.
The Royal Ethereal Research Establishment at Farnborough is opened. It is staffed bya collection of Government employed scientists and inventors researching all things Ethereal. It is also, however, a military establishment and as a result most of the employees hold a military commission of some kind, thus making it a potential background site for PC's wishing to combine military and scientific careers.
Phineas Taylor Barnum's (July 5, 1810 April 7, 1891) circus by 1872 was billing itself as "The Greatest Show on Earth" went through a number of variants on these names: "P.T. Barnum's Travelling World's Fair, Great Roman Hippodrome and Greatest Show On Earth", and after an 1881 merger with James Bailey and James L. Hutchinson, "P.T. Barnum's Greatest Show On Earth, And The Great London Circus, Sanger's Royal British Menagerie and The Grand International Allied Shows United", soon shortened to "Barnum & London Circus". He and Bailey split up again in 1885, but came back together in 1888 with the "Barnum & Bailey Greatest Show On Earth", later "Barnum & Bailey Circus", which toured around the world. The show's primary attraction was Jumbo, an African elephant he purchased in 1882 from the London Zoo.
October 8 and 9, fire destroys 3.5 square miles of Chicago.
Jesse James robs his first passenger train
Italian unification (called in Italian the Risorgimento, or "Resurgence") was the political and social process that unified disparate states of the Italian peninsula into the single nation of Italy. It is difficult to pin down exact dates for the beginning and end of Italian reunification, but most scholars agree that it began with the end of Napoleonic rule and the Congress of Vienna in 1815, and largely ended with the Franco-Prussian War in 1871, though the last "città irredente" did not join the Kingdom of Italy until the Treaty of Saint-Germain after World War I.
|1872||First British foothold on Mars with the
establishment of the Permanent British Quarter in
France passes law of Universal Service. (Draft)
March 1, President Ulysses S. Grant signed a bill into law that created Yellowstone National Park.
|1873||Edison loses patent suit against Armstrong Ether Flyer
Company. Both firms compete vigorously in design and construction of
The Home Rule League was one of the organizations that campaigned for Irelands legislative independence from the United Kingdom. In particular, it sought to secure an Irish parliament that would be answerable to Westminster on imperial matters only.
After much British pressure, Sultan Barghash of Zanzibar agrees to halt the slave trade in East Africa.
1873 - 1874 James Starley Invents Early Bicycle. James Starley, British inventor, is best known for his development of the early bicycle. His bicycle, using steel-rimmed wheels with solid rubber tyres, was patented in 1869. Starley developed the geared bicycle, producing a machine that incorporated most of the design features of what has become known as the high-wheel bicycle.
David Livingstone died in 1873 on the Shores of Lake Bagweulu. His body was shipped back to England and buried in Westminster Abbey - Henry Morton Stanley was one of the pall-bearers.
Central Park in New York is completed. The park was designed by Frederick Law Olmsted and Calvert Vaux, both of whom later created Brooklyn's Prospect Park. While much of the park looks natural, it is in fact almost entirely landscaped and contains several artificial lakes, extensive walking tracks, two ice-skating rinks, a wildlife sanctuary, and grassy areas used for various sporting pursuits, as well as playgrounds for children. The park is a popular oasis for migrating birds, and thus is popular with bird watchers. The park was not part of the Commissioners' Plan of 1811. However, between 1821 and 1855, New York City nearly quadrupled in population.
The first French scientific expedition to Mars, led by Dr. Claude Massigny, lands near Idaeus Fons and establishes friendly relations with it's ruler King Lotmar.
Armstrong expedition to Venus fails to
Collingswood Expedition to Venus fails to
The Channel Tunnel. There had been numerous proposals for a tunnel under the channel throughout the 19th Century including one by Napoleon, but the first serious attempt to build a tunnel came with an Act of Parliament in 1875 authorising the Channel Tunnel Company Ltd. to start preliminary trials. This was an Anglo French project with a simultaneous Act of Parliament in France.
The first Martian expeditions of the Belgians were also led by Henry Morton Stanley to "prove that the Coprates natives were susceptible of civilization and that the Coprates valley was rich enough to repay exploitation". Stanley's revelation of the commercial possibilities of the region resulted in the setting up of a large trading venture and led to frequent native rebellions in 1882 as well as the founding of the Upper Coprates State in 1885. While David Livingstone combined geographical, religious, commercial, and humanitarian goals in his exploration journeys, Stanley created the direct link between exploration and colonization, especially in the service of Leopold II of Belgium. Stanley represented Leopold in signing treaties with bewildered Martian chiefs. Leopold II's ruthless exploitation of the natural resources of the Congo ("the rubber atrocities") and Coprates were protested by the international community and the Belgian parliament eventually forced the king to give up personal control of the regions.
February 2, The National League, the oldest existing major-league professional baseball organization in the United States, began play as the National League of Professional Baseball Clubs.
Alexander Graham Bell constructed this prototype telephone consisting of a coil of wire, a magnetic arm and a taut membrane. Any sound causes the membrane, and hence the magnetic arm, to vibrate. The movement of the magnet induces a fluctuating electric current in the coil. This electrical signal can be reconverted into sound by an identical apparatus at the other end of the circuit.
May 26, The Challenger Expedition, a groundbreaking oceanographic exploration cruise carried out by the British Admiralty and the Royal Society, concluded successfully.
In 1876, The English explorer Sir Henry Wickham (May 29, 1846 – September 27, 1928), at the request of the India Office, collected and shipped from the Portugese controlled Santarém area of Brazil 70,000 seeds from the wild rubber tree ( Hevea brasiliensis). These were rushed to Royal Botanical Gardens at Kew in London and planted in specially prepared hot-houses. The small number, which survived and became seedlings, were taken in 1877 to Ceylon and later to Malaysia and other countries of South-east Asia allowing the establishment of a British controlled Rubber industry. Rubber plantations in Asia were much more efficient and outproduced Brazil. This was because the Asian rubber plantations were organized and well suited for production on a commercial scale whereas in Brazil the process of latex gathering from forest trees remained a difficult extractive process: rubber tappers worked natural rubber groves in the southern Amazon forest, and rubber tree densities were almost always low, as a consequence of high natural forest diversity. Moreover, experiments in cultivating rubber trees in plantations in the Amazon showed them to be vulnerable to South American rubber tree leaf blight fungus and other diseases and pests. Thus Wickham has been accused of dooming the Amazonian rubber boom. In fact, in Brazil, Wickham is labeled as a "bio-pirate" for his role in stealing the rubber seeds that broke the Brazilian monopoly. In 1876, no Brazilian law would have prevented Wickham's collection of the seeds, but it is believed by many that he may have misrepresented his cargo as dead botanical material destined for the herbarium in order to obtain an export license in Belém.
|1877||London Times Venus rescue expedition fails to
After the development of Maxwell's theory of electromagnetism, several experiments were performed to prove the existence of ether and its motion relative to the Earth. The most famous and successful was the one now known as the Michelson-Morley experiment, performed by Albert Michelson (1852-1931) and Edward Morley (1838-1923) in 1887.
14 July, As anti-Terran sentiment grows amongst the Martian population of Idaeus Fons, riots break out when a mob of Martians attacked a Bastille Day celebration. Six Frenchmen died in the fighting, and much property was damaged. Tje French Consul demanded a full apology and reparations from the King. When he refused, the French declared war.
November, Five French regiments landed, near Idaeus Fons on Mars, and shattered the city's army in three battles. The French compelled King Lotmar to step down in favour of his nephew Akvan. Several nobles were imprisoned and their lands turned over to the French as compensation.
German Ether Dirigible lands on Venus and
discovers fate of the first three expeditions.
King Lotmar, deposed ruler of Idaeus Fons, signed a treaty accepting French military protection and guidance in foreign affairs. Seperate courts for French citizens are set up, and a reduced tariff was set uo for goods brought in on French ether flyers.
In 1878 representatives of the Colonial Office, the Royal Navy, the Royal Mail and the Army met at the Prince Consort's Library in Aldershot, to discuss the growing problem of communications between the Red Planet and Earth. All four institutions recognised the need for a fast, secure and regular method of communication and personnel transfer between the two planets. After a few days of consultations, in an uncommon show of inter-service unity they devised the Ether Dispatch Service. This service was to consist of a large number of small, but very fast, Ether Flyers shuttling between Earth and Mars. So acute was the need for this service that within the year the necessary budgets had been found and Her Majesty had given the service its Royal Charter as well.
January 11, Anglo-Zulu War broke out between Britain and the Zulus, and signalled the end of the Zulus as an independent nation. It had complex beginnings, some bad decisions and bloody battles that caused the British to engage earlier than they intended, but played out a common story of colonialism.
Warburton has controlled the Khyber, and for the greater part of that time secured its safety.
1 May, the first of the Town Class of Ether Dispatch Flyers, the Farnborough, was launched from Her Majesty's Ether Dispatch Service's newly built shipyard, cum Headquarters, next to the Royal Ethereal Research Establishment in Farnborough. Under the command of the newly promoted Admiral Sefton Inwood, Her Majesty's Ether Dispatch Flyer Farnborough, completed her 10 days of trials without a hitch , and began her maiden flight to Mars. This was completed in 43 days, a new record as the Farnborough achieved her designed average speed of 5 million miles per day. Inspired by the success of the Farnborough's first flight she was joined within the year by her sister Flyers, the Aldershot and the Portsmouth.
April 3, Sofia, liberated from the Ottoman Empire by Russian troops, was named the capital of Bulgaria.
A committee investigates the feasibility of completing the Analytical Engine and concludes that it is possible even now that Babbage is dead. The project is completed by Imperial Business Machines (IBM).
28 December 1879, The Tay Bridge Disaster. When the first Tay Rail Bridge, which crossed the Firth of Tay between Dundee and Wormit in Scotland, collapsed during a violent storm while a train was passing over it. The bridge was designed by the noted railway engineer Sir Thomas Bouch, using a lattice grid that combined wrought and cast iron. During a violent storm on the evening of 28 December 1879, the centre section of the bridge, known as the "High Girders", collapsed, taking with it a train that was running on its single track. All 75 people on the train were killed. The total number was only established by a meticulous examination of ticket sales, some from as far away as King's Cross.Of the 60 known victims, only 46 were found, with two bodies not being recovered until February 1880.
1880 - 1900 Scramble for Africa and the planets
Name given to the division of Africa, Mars, Venus and mercury into spheres of
influence by the European powersnotably Great Britain, Germany, France,
Belgium, and Portugaland the formalization of the colonization of these
areas. The Berlin Conference had been called in 1884 to define the spheres of
influence of the European powers, and set the rules for the further
colonization of Earth and the Solar System. The Berlin Act of 1885 introduced
the doctrine of effective occupation.
Channel Tunnel, under the direction of Sir Edward Watkin, Chairman of the South Eastern Railway, a new shaft (No. 1 shaft) was sunk at Abbot's Cliff, between Dover and Folkestone with a horizontal gallery being driven along the cliff, 10 feet above the high water mark. This seven foot diameter pilot tunnel was eventually to be enlarged to standard gauge with a connection to the South Eastern Railway.
Fu Manchu puts into motion his grandiose plot to falsify scientists' deaths & conscript them into his service; he will continue to use these methods for at least sixty years.
By the end of January 1881, the first group of French
engineers of the Compagnie Universelle du Canal Interoceanique arrived at Colon
and the great task of construction commenced. In the years to follow men and
machinery poured into Panama to confront the geographical obstacles of the
Isthmus: the backbone of the continental divide at the Culebra Cut and the
mighty Chagres river.At this time the French stood at the pinnacle of 19th
century engineering. Their finest engineers and machinery were sent to work.
For 8 years a valiant and determined effort was made on the isthmus. The
climate, with its torrential rains, incessant heat and fatal disease, took its
toll. Financial mismanagement, stock failure and bad publicity eventually
forced the failure of the company.
Channel Tunnel, after Welsh miners had bored 800 feet of No 1 shaft shaft, a second shaft (No 2) was begun at Shakespeare Cliff in February 1881. This tunnel was started under the foreshore heading towards a mid channel meeting with the French pilot tunnel. Both tunnels were bored using a compressed air boring machine invented and built by Colonel Fredrick Beaumont MP. Beaumont had been involved with the Channel Tunnel Company since 1874 and had successfully bored a number of tunnels without the use of explosives and 3 ½ times faster than manual labour. It was not however Beaumont's boring machine that was used. Captain Thomas English of Dartford, Kent patented a far superior rotary boring machine in 1880 capable of cutting nearly half a mile a month and it was this not Beaumont's machine that was used for tunnelling under the channel. The tunnel was credited to Beaumont in 'The Engineer' magazine and despite letters of protest from English the editor refused to correct the mistake and Beaumont did nothing to clarify the situation. The Channel Tunnel Company expected the pilot tunnel to be completed by 1886. Sir Edward Watkin applied to the government for public funds to complete the 11 mile section to meet the French mid channel. These funds were not forthcoming so Sir Edward formed a new company, The Submarine Continental Railway Company that took over the shafts and headings from the South Eastern Railway in 1882. The company prepared a new Bill to put before Parliament but by now the government were getting worried about the military implications of a link to Europe and a new military commission heard evidence from Lieutenant General Sir Garnet Wolseley that the tunnel might be "calamitous for England", he added that "No matter what fortifications and defences were built, there would always be the peril of some continental army seizing the tunnel exit by surprise." However, assurances from Sir Edward that the defence against invasion was adequate by flooding the tunnel, cutting of the ventilation and forcing smoke into the tunnel and cutting the cables on the lifts in the shaft thereby trapping any invader at the bottom, the commission was convinced.
March 13, Tsar Alexander II assassinated in St. Petersburg by Ignacy Hryniewiecki after Nikolai Rysakov had attempted the assassination but missed the tsar. A third bomber in the crowd, Ivan Emelyanov stood ready, clutching a briefcase containing a bomb that would be used if the other two bombs, and bombers, failed.
Sherlock Holmes meets Dr. John H. Watson and the pair take up residence in Baker Street.
March 19 (Saint Joseph day), Bishop Mr. Urquinaona placed the foundation stone of the Temple Expiatori de la Sagrada Família in Barcelona.Prince Milan Obrenovich of Serbia proclaims himself king.
March 24, Robert Koch announced in Berlin that he had isolated and grown the tubercle bacillus, which he believed to be the cause of all forms of tuberculosis.
July 1882, the British fleet began bombarding Alexandria.
Following the burning of Alexandria and its occupation by British marines, the
British installed the khedive in the Ras at Tin Palace. The khedive obligingly
declared Urabi a rebel and deprived him of his political rights. Urabi in turn
obtained a religious ruling, a fatwa, signed by three Al Azhar shaykhs,
deposing Tawfiq as a traitor who brought about the foreign occupation of his
country and betrayed his religion. Urabi also ordered general conscription and
declared war on Britain. Thus, as the British army was about to land in August,
Egypt had two leaders: the khedive, whose authority was confined to
British-controlled Alexandria, and Urabi, who was in full control of Cairo and
the provinces. In August Sir Garnet Wolsley and an army of 20,000 invaded the
Suez Canal Zone. Wolsley was authorized to crush the Urabi forces and clear the
country of rebels. The decisive battle was fought at Al-Tall al-Kabir (September 13, 1882).
September 13, British Field Marshal Garnet Joseph Wolseley, 1st Viscount Wolseley, completed hismost brilliant campaign which involved seizing the Suez Canal and, after a night march, surprising and defeating 'Urabi Pasha at Al-Tall al-Kabir (September 13, 1882).
Paul Krueger elected president of the South
Russian intervention in Hecates Lacus civil war leads to Treaty of Cebrenia recognizing Russia's "special interests" in the region. The treaty allows Russia to take it's first step towards establishing a Martian colony. The treaty established spheres of influence on Mars, dividing the planet between the European powers. The Tsar, eager to enjoy the benefits of Martian trade, and looking for a place even more remote than Siberia to send enemies of the state, sent envoys to the city of Hecate Lacus immediately after the treaty went into effect and a Russian colony is established in the city soon after.
May 24, in a brilliant feat of 19th-century engineering, the Brooklyn Bridge, designed by civil engineer John Augustus Roebling, spanning the East River from Brooklyn to Manhattan Island in New York City—opened this day in 1883.
August 26- August 27, The volcanic island of Krakatau, situated in south-western Indonesia in the Sunda Strait, was almost completely destroyed by a volcanic eruption on August 26-27, 1883. The volcanic activity had been strong since May of that year. The earthquake resulted in an explosion that was heard about 4,800 km (3,000 mi) away, and in tidal waves 35 m (120 ft) high; about 36,000 people in coastal Sumatra and Java perished in the disaster, and atmospheric changes produced by the earthquake were still visible three years later. The pressure wave generated by the colossal fourth, and final, explosion radiated out from Krakatoa at 1,086 km/h (675 mph). It was so powerful that it ruptured the eardrums of sailors on ships in the Sunda Strait,and caused a spike of more than two and half inches of mercury (ca 85 hPa) in pressure gauges attached to gasometers in the Batavia gasworks, sending them off the scale.The pressure wave radiated across the globe and was recorded on barographs all over the world, which continued to register it up to 5 days after the explosion. Barographic recordings show that the shock-wave from the final explosion reverberated around the globe 7 times in total. Ash was propelled to an estimated height of 80 km (50 mi). The eruptions diminished rapidly after that point, and by the morning of 28 August, Krakatoa was silent. Small eruptions, mostly of mud, continued into October 1883.
February 1, The first of 10 volumes of the Oxford English Dictionary was published in London, the final volume being published April 19, 1928.
Major-General Charles Gordon reaches Khartoum as
governor of the Sudan. The Mahdi refuses to negotiate and brings Khartoum under
July 4, The Statue of Liberty was presented to the United States by the French in Paris.
August 1884, at the Battle of Foochow,
in less than 30 minutes French forces utterly destroyed the anchored and
inferior Chinese naval fleet that had been built, ironically, under the
supervision of Prosper Gicquel, a French citizen in China. In Tonkin, however,
the monsoon season precluded offensive operations by the French, allowing the
Chinese to advance to the edge of the Red River delta. During this operation,
the Chinese laid siege to the fortress of Tuyen Quang, leading to its
celebrated defense by a battalion of the French Foreign Legion.
Professor James Moriaty writes "The Dynamics of an Asteroid" a book which ascends to such rarefied heights of pure mathematics that it is said that there was no man in the scientific press capable of criticizing it.
January 17, at a caravan stop called Abu Klea (63 miles
south of Ed damur. The Camel Corp encountered a mahdist force of 10,000 under
the Command of Mohammed Ahmed. A desperate hand to hand battle took place on
the 17th of January. But the Mahdist forces were repulsed, even though they had
broken the British square at a point in the battle. The Mahdist losses were
over 1,000 killed compared to the Anglo-Egyptian losses of 168. General
Stewarts camel corp fought its way to the Nile and arrived to days later but
Stewart had been mortally wounded. The commanded went to Lord Charles Beresford
who continued up the Nile and arrived on January 28, but only 48 hours late to
save the garrison.
March 26,the first clash of the Riel Rebellion in Canada took place in Duck Lake, Saskatchewan.
June 9, the
treaty ending the Sino-French War was signed, as China acknowledged the Treaty
of Hué and gave up its suzerainty over the Empire of Annam. Annam and
Tonkin were incorporated into French Indochina soon thereafter.
January 29th, German mechanical engineer Karl Benz patented the first practical automobile powered by an internal-combustion engine.
Queen Maria Christina gives birth to the future Alfonso XIII.
General George Boulanger becomes French war minister.
February 24th, the first Channel Tunnel between England and France is opened by Queen Victoria. The Channel Tunnel is the latest marvel of an ingenious age; a railway link between Dover and Calais. On each shore there are stations and railway bridges out to artificial islands, where trains enter the tunnel itself; the bridges are mined and overlooked by the guns of heavily-armed forts, to guard against invasion through the tunnel. Ventilation shafts at intervals lead up to small concrete and brick “islands” supporting tall chimney stacks and warning lights. In mid-Channel, on the Varne bank, a larger artificial island is used for coaling and watering trains, and to give passengers a welcome break from the dust and smoke of the tunnel. Eventually a hotel and docks will be built there. The tunnel itself is dug through the bed of the Channel. Each of the railway lines is carried in a steel pipe, waterproofed with layers of bitumen and pitch, lined with concrete and brick, and reinforced with steel hoops. At intervals the pipes are linked by cross-tunnels, just large enough for a man, which can be used to evacuate a train in an emergency. Unfortunately early fears that the tunnel might be used as a route to invade Britain were correct; a renegade element of the French army which had been planning treachery for many years, and used the opening ceremony as cover for an attack. While the Queen dined in Calais members of the French Foreign Legion were landed on one of the tunnel's ventilation “islands”, a brick and concrete chimney that vents engine smoke, and climbed down to the track. They planned to stop the train in the tunnel and board it, then carry on to Dover, where they would force Her Majesty, the Queen, to perform an unscheduled “inspection” of the fort that guards the British end of the tunnel, and overcome the garrison before they can destroy the tunnel entrance bridge. Once the fort was in French hands they planned signal their main force; several military trains will be brought through the tunnel, securing Dover and Folkestone harbours for a sea-borne invasion fleet, while more troops poured through the tunnel. This assault was foiled through the actions of Sir Peter Arthur and his fellow adventurers who fortuitously amongst those taken hostage, escaping when the train was stopped in the tunnel, and with the help of God rescuing the Queen and foiling the dastardly French scheme. The diplomatic repercusions of this assault kept the tunnel closed until November 1886, when after concessions and reperations were made by the French government, the tunnel was finally opened for use.
The engineer is Sir John Wolfe Barry and
the architect Sir Horace Jones, who describe the bridge's exuberant towers as
steel skeletons clothed with stone. The towers contain both the
passenger lifts to the upper pedestrian footway and the hydraulic mechanisms
for lifting the bascules of the bridge. These two bascules can swing open for
ships to pass in 1 minutes.
Dorr E. Felt (1862-1930), of Chicago, makes his "Comptometer". This is the first calculator where the operands are entered merely by pressing keys rather than having to be, for example, dialled in. It is feasible because of Felt's invention of a carry mechanism fast enough to act while the keys return from being pressed.
Queen Victoria celebrates her Golden Jubilee.
British besiege and capture the city of Shastapsh.
"Avenel Incident" brings Britain and Oenotria to the brink of war.
Fenian Ram destroyed by British aerial gunboats in the Meroe Highlands, but O'Connor survives and escapes.
Successful aerial campaign waged against High Martian pirates of the Astusapes Highlands, culminating in near-total destruction of Barrovaangian fleet. A significant number of Red Captains, operating under letters of marque took part in these operations.
Prince Ferdinand of Saxe-Coburg elected king of Bulgaria, with Stambulov as prime minister.
General Boulanger attempts coup in Paris, but fails.
France organizes the Union Indo-Chinoise.
Leopold II declares the Lower Coprates a Belgian protectorate.
Construction begins on Tehuantepec Ship Railroad. Designed by James Buchanan Eads (1820 - 1887) this interoceanic railway is designed to span the Isthmus of Tehuantepec which is the shortest distance between the Gulf of Mexico and the Pacific Ocean.
L.L. Zameenhoff devises the language "Esperanto."
Great Britain and Germany agree on a division of East Africa, giving Britain rights to Kenya and Germany rights to German East Africa (Tanzania). Britain takes administrative control of Mombasa.
|1888||Royal Geographic Society awards this year's gold
medals to Clements Robert Markham for his polar work and Leutnant von Wissmann
for his exploration in Central Africa.March 9, Kaiser (emperor) Wilhelm
I of Germany dies and is succeeded by his son Fredrick III, who dies in June
and is succeeded by his son Wilhelm II. A diplomatic cable from Berlin on the
Kaiser's death reads: "Lord abide with us for the evening draws
The so-called "Ripper" murders take place in Whitechapel district of London."Jack the Ripper" is the popular name given to a serial killer who killed a number of prostitutes in the East End of London in 1888. The name originates from a letter written by someone who claimed to be the killer published at the time of the murders. The killings took place within a mile area and involved the districts of Whitechapel, Spitalfields, Aldgate, and the City of London proper. He was also called the Whitechapel Murderer and "Leather Apron". It is unclear just how many women the Ripper killed. It is generally accepted that he killed five, though some have written that he murdered only four while others say seven or more. The public, press, and even many junior police officers believed that the Ripper was responsible for nine slayings. The five that are generally accepted as the work of the Ripper are:
1. Mary Ann (Polly) Nichols, murdered Friday, August 31, 1888.
2. Annie Chapman, murdered Saturday, September 8, 1888.
3. Elizabeth Stride, murdered Sunday, September 30, 1888.
4. Catharine Eddowes, also murdered that same date.
5. Mary Jane (Marie Jeanette) Kelly, murdered Friday, November 9, 1888.
Besides these five there are good reasons to believe that the first victim was really Martha Tabram who was murdered Tuesday, August 7, 1888, and there are important considerations for questioning whether Stride was a Ripper victim. As to the actual number of women that the Ripper killed, there is no simple answer. In a sentence: at least four, probably six, just possibly eight. All five of these listed plus Tabram were prostitutes and were killed between early August and early November 1888. All but Tabram and Kelly were killed outdoors and there is no evidence to suggest that any of them knew each other. They varied in both age and appearance. Most were drunk or thought to be drunk at the time they were killed.
The Financial Times first published in London.
King Lobenfula of the Matabele accepts British protectorate status and grants Cecil Rhodes mining rights.
Sarawak accepts status of British protectorate.
General Boulanger is retired from the French Army and elected to the Chamber of Deputies.
Anarchist Ravachol escapes from Prison.
Benjamin Harrison elected president of the United States.
Johnstown flood takes place.
Sidney Boynton, United States Ambassador to the Oenotrian Court, is kidnapped by Barrovaangian King Hattabranx, but he is later rescued by British gunboats. First recorded successful assault on a large kraag.
Pedro II, emperor of Brazil, abolishes slavery.
1888 John Dunlop Patents Pneumatic Bicycle Tyre. Scottish inventor John Dunlop is best known for his invention and commercial development of the pneumatic tyre. In 1888 he patented a pneumatic bicycle tyre that consisted of an inflatable rubber inner tube covered by linen cloth with an outer rubber tread, which was fixed to the wheel by means of a rubber solution. Robert William Thomson had patented the tyre as early as 1845, but Dunlop was able to exploit it commercially because of the introduction of the motor car.
Royal charter protects the Imperial British East Africa Company (IBEAC), founded by Sir William Mackinnon, 1st Baronet (13 March 1823 - 22 June 1893) to develop trade in Africa. The IBEAC oversaw an area of approximately 246,800 mi² (639,209 km²) situated along the eastern coast of Africa, its centre being at about 39° East longitude and 0° latitude, and from 1890 also administered Uganda. The administration of British East Africa was transferred to the Foreign Office on 1 July 1895, and in 1896 so was control of Uganda.
George Eastman Patents Kodak Camera. George Eastman, an American inventor, developed the Kodak camerathe first to use roll film, which he had invented in 1884, and to be suitable for general use. No technical knowledge was required.
Henry Morton Stanley visits Lake Edward and names it after the then Prince of Wales, Edward VII.
The official end of Ferdinand De Lesseps Panama Canal
project came on February 4th 1889 when the companies assets went into the hands
of the liquidator. By May all work was halted on the isthmus.
22 March, Dr. Gottlieb Wilhelm Leitner died.
March 31,The Eiffel Tower, of wrought-iron construction, was opened to the public in
Paris as a temporary structure, the opening archway. for the Paris Worlds
Fair in 1889, commemorating the centennial of the French Revolution. It was
designed and built by the French engineer Gustave Eiffel. At 300 m (984 ft)
tall, it is one of the major landmarks of the city, although it was originally
planned to remove it after 5 years. The tower was constructed of approximately
6,300 tonnes of iron. Four arched tapered legs converge to observation decks in
the centre, which can be reached either by stairs or lifts. The plan to build a
tower 300 metres high was conceived as part of preparations for the World's
Fair of 1889. Somewhat surprisingly to the people who commissioned it, it is
already proving to be a major source of tourist revenue, so it may be
impractical to take it down.
May 1, On this day in 1889, May Day, which was traditionally a celebration of the return of spring, marked by dancing around a Maypole, was first observed as a labour holiday, designated as such by the International Socialist Congress.
May 27, the American petrochemical corporation South Penn Oil Co., later Pennzoil Company, was founded in Pennsylvania.
May 31, considered one of the worst natural disasters in American history, a flood ravaged Johnstown, Pennsylvania, causing more than 2,200 deaths. Requisitioned Aerial Flyers are used by the police and fire services to rescue many people from the floods. The need for a US-wide aerial search and rescue service is championed by the New York Times.
US Secret Service agents, James West and Artemis Gordon, rescue Amber Morris, daughter of Arizona's governor, from T. Marcus Cosgrove.
Oct-Nov The Shah Jahan Mosque in Woking, Surrey,England was opened in 1889 as one of the first mosques in westeurope from the orientalist Dr. Gottlieb Wilhelm Leitner in Bath and Bargate stone in indo-saracenic stile commissioned by Shah Jahan, Begum of Bhopal (1868-1901), and maintained since then as a Waqf. Shah Jahan Begum was one of the four female Muslim rulers of Bhopal who reigned between 1819 and 1926. Shah Jahan Begum made sizable donations towards the building of the mosque und also contributed generously towards the founding of the “Muhammadan Anglo-Oriental College” at Aligarh, which developed into the Aligarh Muslim University. Sadly, the ambitions of Dr. Leitner were not fulfilled, for the Institute relied too heavily upon Dr. Leitner’s personal enthusiasm and wealth, and it did not survive his early death. This included his ambition to travel to Mars to further his studies. This was to be a prelude to bringing Martian studies into the Oriental Institute.
The Victorian Adventure Continues....
"Conklin's Atlas of the Worlds and Handy Manual of Useful Information" Edited by Frank Chadwick
Science-Fiction Role Playing in a More Civilized Time.
Space: 1889 is Frank Chadwick's registered trademark for his game of Victorian Era Space-faring.